kumbh mela hinduismus

this year (2010) the kumbha will be in Haridwar. Traditionally, on amavasya – the most cherished day for bathing – the Hindu pilgrims welcome and wait for the thirteen sadhu akharas to bathe first. It is hosted in four cities of India these are Haridwar, Prayag or Allahabad, Ujjain and Nashik. churning of the ocean) found in the Vedic texts. Traditionally, four fairs are widely recognized as the Kumbh Melas: the Prayag Kumbh Mela, Haridwar Kumbh Mela, the Nashik-Trimbakeshwar Simhastha, and Ujjain Simhastha. A Maha Kumbh Mela de 2001, em Prayagraj, foi um dos maiores e mais espetaculares festivais jamais ocorridos. [7] However, there is no historic literary evidence of these mass pilgrimages called "Kumbha Mela" prior to the 19th-century. He goes to a saint, who advises him to go on a pilgrimage to Prayag and bathe in river Ganges as a means of penance. [53] The late 16th-century Tabaqat-i-Akbari also records of an annual bathing festival at Prayag sangam where "various classes of Hindus came from all sides of the country to bathe, in such numbers, that the jungles and plains [around it] were unable to hold them". [100] In the case of Prayag in particular, the festival site is predominantly submerged during the monsoon months. So they built a high-tech surveillance ministate", "Mauni Amavasya: Five crore pilgrims take holy dip at Kumbh till 5 pm", "Review of Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765–1954", "Time Trends of Cholera in India : An Overview", "Five die in stampede at Hindu bathing festival", Kumbh Mela pictured from space – probably the largest human gathering in history, "India's Hindu Kumbh Mela festival begins in Allahabad", Kumbh Mela: How UP will manage one of the world's biggest religious festival, "Official Website of Kumbh Mela 2013 Allahabad Uttar Pradesh India", "CM reviews Kumbh Mela 2021 preparations", "Managing the Earth's Biggest Mass Gathering Event and WASH Conditions: Maha Kumbh Mela (India)", 10.1371/currents.dis.e8b3053f40e774e7e3fdbe1bb50a130d, India: Staying Healthy at “The Biggest Gathering on Earth”, "Sadhus astride elephants, horses at Maha Kumbh", "Short Cut to Nirvana - A Documentary about the Kumbh Mela Spiritual Festival", "Kumbh Mela 2013 – living with mahatiagi", "Why twins no longer get separated at Kumbh Mela", "Uncertified film screening at Kolkata gallery miffs CBFC", "India's Kumbh Mela Is Used as an Incubator for Smart City Startup Ideas", "Massachusetts Institute of Technology joins the pilgrims at the Kumbh Mela in Nashik, India to test out technology for our over-crowded cities", "From Waze for crowds to Uber for street food – MIT innovations at Kumbh Mela", "ISIS Has Just Warned India Of Las Vegas Type Lone-Wolf Attacks During Kumbh Mela", "Kumbh Mela 2019: ISIS issues threats of chemical attack, NDRF conducts mock drill", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kumbh_Mela&oldid=998448825, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Religious pilgrimage, rituals, social practices and festive events. While there are some religious and enchanted elements at work that emphasize Prayag's sanctity, other forces have promoted the Hardwar Kumbh Mela in Allahabad. The 10-minute audio clip warned of a 2017 Las Vegas style attacks to be carried out by lone wolf attackers. This and other details such as the names of temples and bathing pools suggest that Xuanzang presented Hindu practices at Prayag in the 7th-century, from his Buddhist perspective and perhaps to "amuse his audience back in China", states Glucklich. The dispute started over the bathing order, which then indicated status of the akharas. The phrases such as "Maha Kumbh" and "Ardh Kumbh" in the context of the ancient religious pilgrimage festivals with a different name at Prayag, Nasik and Ujjain are evidently of a more modern era. Large tracts of Kumbh mela lands near the Ganga-Yamuna confluence were confiscated and annexed into the government cantonment. [52], According to James Mallinson – a scholar of Hindu yoga manuscripts and monastic institutions, bathing festivals at Prayag with large gatherings of pilgrims are attested since "at least the middle of the first millennium CE", while textual evidence exists for similar pilgrimage at other major sacred rivers since the medieval period. Dieser besondere Krug enthielt den Trank der Unsterblichkeit. According to Kama MacLean, the socio-political developments during the colonial era and a reaction to the Orientalism led to the rebranding and remobilisation of the ancient Magha Mela as the modern era Kumbh Mela, particularly after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. [109] In 2013, the National Geographic Channel returned and filmed the Inside the Mahakumbh. [5][107] Pilgrimage and bathing in holy rivers with a motivation to do penance and as a means to self-purify has Vedic precedents and is discussed in the early dharma literature of Hinduism. [53][68] The British officials, states Dubey, raised the tax to amount greater than average monthly income and the attendance fell drastically. In this film, two characters search for the tenth avatar and the final avtar of Lord Vishnu – Kalki, in the lines of Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot. Nackt und besitzlos leben sie nur für Gott und das Jenseits. [6], The festival is traditionally credited to the 8th-century Hindu philosopher and saint Adi Shankara, as a part of his efforts to start major Hindu gatherings for philosophical discussions and debates along with Hindu monasteries across the Indian subcontinent. According to Amna Khalid, the Kumbh Melas emerged as one of the social and political mobilisation venues and the colonial government became keen in monitoring these developments after the Indian rebellion of 1857. [67], The Kumbh melas of the past, albeit with different regional names, attracted large attendance and have been religiously significant to the Hindus for centuries. However, these were referred to as Singhasth mela, and the phrase "Kumbh mela" is yet to be found in literature prior to the 19th-century. They attend spiritual discourses, fast and pray over the month, and these Kumbh pilgrims are called kalpavasis. Religion Hinduismus (GERMANY OUT) Maha Kumbh Mela (Fest) in Hardwar,Indien:Hinduistische Naga Sadhus auf dem Wegzum Ganges (zum Bad im heiligen Fluß)- 14.04.1998 (COL) (Photo by Khemka/ullstein bild via Getty Images) [92] According to Kama Maclean, the coordinators and attendees themselves state that a part of the glory of the Kumbh festival is in that "feeling of brotherhood and love" where millions peacefully gather on the river banks in harmony and a sense of shared heritage. [109], The festival site is strictly vegetarian[109] by tradition, as violence against animals is considered unacceptable. The 4 places of ‘Kumbh Mela’ are symbols of 4 directions. [105] These ritual practices are punctuated by celebratory feasts where vast number of people sit in rows and share a community meal – mahaprasada – prepared by volunteers from charitable donations. Town Survey Report: Haryana, Thanesar, District Kurukshetra, Fairs and Festivals of India: Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, "Over 3 crore take holy dip in Sangam on Mauni Amavasya", "Over three crore devotees take the dip at Sangam", "Eyes in the sky. [78] In 1986, 50 people were killed in a stampede. O Khumba Mela ou Kumbh Mela (de khumb, "pote" e mela, "festival") é o principal festival do hinduísmo, que ocorre quatro vezes a cada doze anos na Índia, rodando por quatro cidades: Prayagraj, Ujjain, Nashik e Haridwar. The Simhastha Kumbha Mela will take place in Ujjain this year from April 22nd to May 21st, 2016, during These are in the form of Snana (bathe) ritual and in the form of Prayag Mahatmya (greatness of Prayag, historical tour guides in Sanskrit). [124], Hindu pilgrimage and festival celebrated in India. With each 12-year cycle per the Georgian calendar, a calendar year adjustment appears in approximately 8 cycles. [20] They intervened, laid out the camps, trading spaces, and established a bathing order for each akhara. The gap between Prayag and Haridwar festivals is about 6 years, and both feature a Maha (major) and Ardha (half) Kumbh melas. [18], The Kumbh Melas have three dates around which the significant majority of pilgrims participate, while the festival itself lasts between one[19] to three months around these dates. [49] In contrast, Ariel Glucklich – a scholar of Hinduism and Anthropology of Religion, the Xuanzang memoir includes, somewhat derisively, the reputation of Prayag as a place where people (Hindus) once committed superstitious devotional suicide to liberate their souls, and how a Brahmin of an earlier era successfully put an end to this practice. On 30 September 2010, the Kumbh Mela featured in the second episode of the Sky One TV series "An Idiot Abroad" with Karl Pilkington visiting the festival. [72][73], The Kumbh Melas have been sites of tragedies. Em janeiro de 2013 teve início em Prayagraj mais uma edição do Khumb Mela, esperando-se cerca de 100 milhões de participantes durante os 55 dias do evento.[2]. [55][54], Like the Prayag mela, the bathing pilgrimage mela at Nasik and Ujjain are of considerable antiquity. Kumbh Mela or Kumbha Mela (/ ˌ k ʊ m b ˈ m eɪ l ə /) is a major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism. The right to be naga, or naked, is considered a sign of separation from the material world. Once the British had regained control of the region, the Prayagwals were persecuted by the colonial officials, some convicted and hanged, while others for whom the government did not have proof enough to convict were persecuted. [110], Darshan, or viewing, is an important part of the Kumbh Mela. Kumbh Mela (Hindi कुंभ मेला kumbh melā, m., von Kumbh ‚Krug‘ und Mela ‚Fest‘, also „Fest des Kruges“) gilt als das größte religiöse Fest des Hinduismus und der Welt. The later Mughal Empire era texts that contain the term "Kumbha Mela" in Haridwar's context include Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh (1695–1699 CE),[53] and Chahar Gulshan (1759 CE). The Kumbh Mela in India is as mesmerizing as it is spiritual. [80], According to the colonial archives, the Prayagwal community associated with the Kumbh Mela were one of those who seeded and perpetuated the resistance and 1857 rebellion to the colonial rule. [20] Four of these morphed under the Kumbh Mela brand during the East India Company rule (British colonial era) when it sought to control the war-prone monks and the lucrative tax and trade revenues at these Hindu pilgrimage festivals. In a later day extension to the legend, the pot is spilled at four places, and that is the origin of the four Kumbha Melas. Approximately once a century, the Kumbh mela returns after 11 years. [71], Prior to 1838, the British officials collected taxes but provided no infrastructure or services to the pilgrims. The Maha Kumbh, which occurs every 12 Purna Kumbh Melas i.e. [108], Some pilgrims walk considerable distances and arrive barefoot, as a part of their religious tradition. However, states Lochtefeld, these historical texts "clearly reveal large, well-established bathing festivals" that were either annual or based on the twelve-year cycle of planet Jupiter. [3], Património Cultural Imaterial da Humanidade, «http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/15/AR2007011500041.html», «Milhões de indianos dão hoje início ao maior festival religioso do mundo, o Kumbh Mela», O Ganges Sagrado - página sobre o hinduísmo da Secretaria da Educação do governo do Paraná, https://pt.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Khumba_Mela&oldid=56289473, Património Cultural Imaterial da Humanidade na Índia, !Artigos que carecem de notas de rodapé desde setembro de 2019, !Artigos que carecem de notas de rodapé sem indicação de tema, !Páginas que usam sintaxe de imagem obsoleta, Atribuição-CompartilhaIgual 3.0 Não Adaptada (CC BY-SA 3.0) da Creative Commons. [2], The Kumbh Mela at Ujjain began in the 18th century, when the Maratha ruler Ranoji Shinde invited ascetics from Nashik to Ujjain for a local festival. [84], During World War II, the colonial government banned the Kumbh Mela to conserve scarce supplies of fuel. What is Kumbh mela ? One of the longest sections about Prayag rivers and its significance to Hindu pilgrimage is found in chapters 103–112 of the Matsya Purana. Weitere Ideen zu buddhismus, spirituell, joga. Kumbh Mela and The Sadhus,(English, Paperback, Badri Narain and Kedar Narain) Pilgrims Publishings, India. Jayant, filho de After 1947, the state governments have taken over this role and provide the infrastructure for the Kumbh mela in their respective states. The British media reported these pilgrim assemblies and protests at the later Kumbh Mela as strangely "hostile" and with "disbelief", states Maclean. [5] In Tirthayatra Parva, before the great war, the epic states "the one who observes firm [ethical] vows, having bathed at Prayaga during Magha, O best of the Bharatas, becomes spotless and reaches heaven. [2] This "spilling" and associated Kumbh mela story is not found in the earliest mentions of the original legend of samudra manthan (churning of the ocean) such as the Vedic era texts (pre-500 BCE). Kumbh Mela or Kumbha Mela (/ˌkʊmb ˈmeɪlə/) is a major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism. O festival Kumbh Mela foi classificado pela UNESCO em 2017 como Património Cultural Imaterial da Humanidade. [58] These soldier-monk traditions have been a well-established feature of the Indian society, and they are prominent feature of the Kumbh melas. Kumbh Melas feature many trade, fairs, charity, community singing, religious recitations, and entertainment spectacles. The festival had roadside merchants of food grains, confectioners, clothes, toys and other items. Millions of Hindus are attending the Kumbh Mela festival in India - the biggest gathering of people in the world. [122], In November 2018, Islamic terrorist organisation ISIS threatened to attack the Hindu pilgrims who visit the Kumbh at Prayagrajin 2019. Kama Maclean states that the early British records do not mention the name "Kumbh Mela" or the 12-year cycle for the Prayag fair. In the years after 1857, the Prayagwals and the Kumbh Mela pilgrim crowds carried flags with images alluding to the rebellion and the racial persecution. [40] It is also mentioned in the Pali canons of Buddhism, such as in section 1.7 of Majjhima Nikaya, wherein the Buddha states that bathing in Payaga (Skt: Prayaga) cannot wash away cruel and evil deeds, rather the virtuous one should be pure in heart and fair in action. They provide logistical arrangements, policing, intervened and judged any disputes and collected taxes. [66][102][104], The bathing ritual by the pilgrims may be aided by a Prayagwal priest or maybe a simple dip that is private. Kumbh Mela, religious festival and pilgrimage rotating between four sacred rivers. [81] Prayagwals objected to and campaigned against the colonial government supported Christian missionaries and officials who treated them and the pilgrims as "ignorant co-religionists" and who aggressively tried to convert the Hindu pilgrims to a Christian sect. [30][31][32], The word mela means "unite, join, meet, move together, assembly, junction" in Sanskrit, particularly in the context of fairs, community celebration. At night the river banks and camps illuminated with oil lamps, fireworks burst over the river, and innumerable floating lamps set by the pilgrims drifted downstream of the river. [2], One of the key features of the Kumbh mela has been the camps and processions of the sadhus (monks). For the 2019 Ardh Kumbh at Prayagraj, the preparations include a ₹42,000 million (US$590 million or €540 million) temporary city over 2,500 hectares with 122,000 temporary toilets and range of accommodation from simple dormitory tents to 5-star tents, 800 special trains by the Indian Railway, artificially intelligent video surveillance and analytics by IBM, disease surveillance, river transport management by Inland Waterways Authority of India, and an app to help the visitors. [91], The Kumbh mela is "widely regarded as the world's largest religious gathering", states James Lochtefeld. Along with priests, soldiers, and religious mendicants, the fair had horse traders from Bukhara, Kabul, Turkistan as well as Arabs and Persians. [58] These monastic groups traditionally credit the Kumbh mela to the 8th-century Hindu philosopher Adi Shankara, as a part of his efforts to start monastic institutions (matha),[60] and major Hindu gatherings for philosophical discussions and debates. www.simhasthujjain.in The Kumbh Mela is a mass Hindu pilgrimage of faith in which Hindus gather to bathe in a sacred river. From April-May 2016, millions will gather in Ujjain for the Simhastha Kumbha Mela. The first British reference to the Kumbh Mela in Prayag occurs only in an 1868 report, which mentions the need for increased pilgrimage and sanitation controls at the "Coomb fair" to be held in January 1870. In 1906, the Sanatan Dharm Sabha met at the Prayag Kumbh Mela and resolved to start the Banaras Hindu University in Madan Mohan Malaviya's leadership. According to Giorgio Bonazzoli – a scholar of Sanskrit Puranas, these are anachronistic explanations, an adaptation of early legends to a later practice by a "small circle of adherents" who have sought roots of a highly popular pilgrimage and festival. After an 1820 stampede at Haridwar killed 485 people, the Company government took extensive infrastructure projects, including the construction of new ghats and road widening, to prevent further stampedes. [83], The historical and modern estimates of attendance vary greatly between sources. Madan Prasad Bezbaruah, Dr. Krishna Gopal, Phal S. Girota, 2003. D. P. Dubey states that none of the ancient Hindu texts call the Prayag fair as a "Kumbh Mela". [74][75][76] The Timur accounts mention the mass bathing ritual along with shaving of head, the sacred river Ganges, charitable donations, the place was at the mountainous source of the river and that pilgrims believed a dip in the sacred river leads to their salvation. These include kalagram (venues of kala, Indian arts), laser light shows, classical dance and musical performances from different parts of India, thematic gates reflecting the historic regional architectural diversity, boat rides, tourist walks to historic sites near the river, as well opportunities to visit the monastic camps to watch yoga adepts and spiritual discourses. [17], Each site's celebration dates are calculated in advance according to a special combination of zodiacal positions of Bṛhaspati (Jupiter), Surya (the Sun) and Chandra (the Moon). [54] The Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh also mentions an annual bathing pilgrimage festival in Prayagraj, but it does not call it Kumbh. what is Kumbha mela ? "[42] In Anushasana parva, after the war, the epic elaborates this bathing pilgrimage as "geographical tirtha" that must be combined with manasa-tirtha (tirtha of the heart) whereby one lives by values such as truth, charity, self-control, patience and others. [29] In astrological texts, the term also refers to the zodiac sign of Aquarius. Sadhus travel to the Kumbh Mela to make themselves available to much of the Hindu public. [28] The astrological etymology dates to late 1st-millennium CE, likely influenced by Greek zodiac ideas. Most pilgrims stay for a day or two, but some stay the entire month of Magh during the festival and live an austere life during the stay. [72] The British officials in co-operation with the native police also made attempts to improve the infrastructure, movement of pilgrims to avoid a stampede, detect sickness, and the sanitary conditions at the Melas. The Gods and demons came together to acquire the pot of Amrut (Divine nectar) and decided to churn the ocean of milk. [28] It is found in the Vedic texts, in this sense, often in the context of holding water or in mythical legends about the nectar of immortality. [101], Bathing, or a dip in the river waters, with a prayer, is the central ritual of the Kumbh Melas for all pilgrims. [70] According to an 1858 account of the Haridwar Kumbh Mela by the British civil servant Robert Montgomery Martin, the visitors at the fair included people from a number of races and clime. [58] By the 18th-century, many of these had organised into one of thirteen akharas (warrior ascetic bands, monastic militia), of which ten were related to Hinduism and three related to Sikhism. Many then proceed to visit old Hindu temples near the site. [85], On 14 April 1998, 10 million pilgrims attended the Kumb Mela at Haridwar on the busiest single day, according to the Himalayan Academy editors. [62] At the 1796 Kumbh Mela in Haridwar, violence broke out between the Shaivites and the Udasis on logistics and camping rights. [116] Amrita Kumbher Sandhane, a 1982 Bengali feature film directed by Dilip Roy, also documents the Kumbh Mela. [41] The Mahabharata mentions a bathing pilgrimage at Prayag as a means of prāyaścitta (atonement, penance) for past mistakes and guilt. The festival management workers have only two and a half months to start and complete the construction of all temporarily infrastructure necessary for the pilgrims, making the task even more challenging.

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